Parks and Cities

All too often, parks, green lungs and open spaces are overlooked and underestimated for the vital role they play in urban areas. Sometimes they are even considered as unaffordable luxuries. In this article, information from a US and a UK source is given, as well as comments from various landscape architects and Johannesburg City Parks.

The City Parks Forum is a programme of the American Planning Association in Chicago, Illinois. In one of a series of briefing papers entitled “How Cities Use Parks for Green Infrastructure”, an executive summary and four key points put forward the following information in favour of parks:

Just as growing communities need to upgrade and expand their built infrastructure of roads, sewers and utilities, they also need to upgrade and expand their green infrastructure, the interconnected system of green spaces that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions, sustains clear air and water and provides a wide array of benefits to people and wildlife. Green infrastructure is a community’s natural life support system, the ecological framework needed for environmental and economic sustainability.

In their role as green infrastructure, parks and open spaces are a community necessity. By planning and managing urban parks as parts of an interconnected green space system, cities can reduce flood control and storm water management costs. Parks can also protect biological diversity and preserve essential ecological functions while serving as a place for recreation and civic engagement. They can even help shape urban form and reduce opposition to development, especially when planned in concert with other open spaces.

Key Point 1: Creating an interconnected system of parks and open space is manifestly more beneficial than creating parks in isolation.
Linking parks, greenways, river corridors and other natural or restored lands together to create an interconnected green space system provides far greater benefit for people and the economy. It helps to connect people and neighbourhoods, provides opportunities for exercise to counter today’s tendency towards obesity, and enhances emotional well-being by bringing nature ‘close to home’. It is important to plan and protect urban green infrastructure as a city grows.

Key Point 2: Cities can use parks to help preserve essential ecological functions and to protect biodiversity.

When managed to maintain and restore natural ecological communities, city parks can help protect the biological diversity of local flora and fauna. When connected strategically with riparian areas, wetlands and other urban green spaces, the ecological value can far exceed the value of any one park. This is because isolated natural areas can “leak” native plant and animal species and suffer from the disruption of natural ecological processes, while connected parks can thrive as a wildlife habitat system and help to restore and maintain vital ecological functions and services.

Key Point 3: When planned as part of a system of green infrastructure, parks can help shape urban form and buffer incompatible uses. 

Interconnected urban green space systems can enhance city aesthetics, help shape urban form and improve the quality of urban life. Strategic design and placement of green space elements across the urban landscape can provide visual relief, separate incompatible land uses and complement the placement of new buildings, roads and other city infrastructure.

Key Point 4: Cities can use parks to reduce public costs for storm water management, flood control, transportation and other forms of built infrastructure.

Perhaps the greatest value of an interconnected green space system is the financial benefit that may be gained when green infrastructure reduces the need for built infrastructure. When designed to include stream networks, wetland and other low-lying areas, a city’s green space system can provide numerous storm water management benefits, including storing, carrying and filtering storm runoff. By thinking of parks as green infrastructure, communities can better understand that parks and other green spaces are a basic necessity that should be planned and developed as an integrated system.

A striking sculpture at the entrance to Dorothy Nyembe Park, Soweto, creates a strong sense of place.

“Parkforce” in the UK

A report from the UK Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) stated that every urban park in England should have dedicated staff present during the day to encourage people back into green spaces that in the past have been under-used and blighted by vandalism and fear of crime. The report, entitled “Parks need Parkforce”, aims to ensure that parks are maintained as vibrant elements in urban communities and encourages the ‘parkforce’ to be made up of wardens, youth workers, volunteers and environmentalists.

Research showed that peoples’ fears of using parks would be allayed if there were regular foot patrols by police, community wardens or park attendants.

The CABE urges local authorities in the UK to sign a pledge to develop and sustain investment in the people who care for their public spaces, building a skilled ‘parkforce’. Local authorities have also been asked to adopt a ‘parkforce’ identity for existing park staff and volunteers. The new ‘parkforce’ will empower communities to become more involved in their own green spaces. When staff are introduced to parks, it creates a circle of improvement: better maintained parks are perceived to be safer, encouraging greater use. The ‘parkforce’ volunteers will be made visible by means of clearly identifiable uniforms and the placing of signs in parks with telephone numbers so that staff can be contacted by users when necessary.

A striking sculpture at the entrance to Dorothy Nyembe Park, Soweto, creates a strong sense of place.

The report calls on local authorities to work out the needs of each park in their area and consult with residents on an action plan.

CABE Space is part of the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment and was set up in May 2003. It champions excellence in the design and management of parks, streets and squares in UK towns and cities and receives funding from the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, as well as support from the Department of Culture, Media and Sport.

Here, in South Africa

Having looked briefly at situations in the UK and USA, here are the views of a few South African landscape architects and Johannesburg City Parks, in response to questions posed by Landscape SA. (JCP = Johannesburg City Parks, JB=Johan Barnard of Newtown Landscape Architects and FC=Fritz Coetzee of Insite Landscape Architects).

What factors need to be taken into account when designing a park?

JCP: The needs of the community determine this, such as the need for a play park for children, a more natural park for the elderly or a well-designed, decorative landscape park. Ecological factors also play a part as slopes need special attention to prevent erosion. Existing structures, water systems and high buildings can affect development, as can neighbouring property developments, railway lines and funds available for development.
JB: There are many factors but the most important one is the setting and sense of place – does the park have views, natural attributes and what are the needs of the community? It is also necessary to create links to the surrounding community – is it old and established or young and developing. Other aspects are socio-economic, access and surveillance.
FC: First of all, parks are for people. We need to consider where a specific park is situated, and what the culture and needs of the neighbouring community are.

Sculpture bench in the Dorothy Nyembe Park, Soweto. Photo: Insite Landscape Architects


What is good park design?

JB: The main thing for us as landscape architects is functionality. The space (park) must work in terms of movement, fit the recreational needs of the community, create social spaces for interaction and be ecologically sound in terms of storm water and habitat. All this must be accommodated within a layout which is easy to maintain.
FC: Park design is a process where one takes the needs of the people (demand) and the area available for the park (supply) and see how best these two can be ‘married’. Functional and aesthetic requirements must be satisfied when designing a park. Ecological considerations are not negotiable when working in a sensitive area. A successful park is one which is frequented by a wide spectrum of the community. A park must be usable during winter and summer, providing shade in summer and sun spots in winter. Vandalism must also be considered and the challenge is to design vandal-proof elements that still appeal to users.

Parks must fit the recreational needs of the community. Here locals play chess in Alec Gorshel Park, Johannesburg. Photo: Insite Landscape Architects
Eldorado Park, a place of social interaction. Photo: Insite Landscape Architects

What is the role and function of a park?

JCP: Firstly, it is decorative; a well designed park with colour, texture, contrasts and a variation of elements is always necessary. It should also be recreational – play parks for children, walking areas for relaxation and trim parks for the health conscious. Parks can be for passive or active recreation. They can also be specifically designed with exhibition areas for art, as natural open spaces for walking trails or as functional spaces to screen off noisy or unsightly areas (using plants).
JB: Parks are recreational, for events and exhibits, relaxation, community use and to retain green open spaces. The bigger the park, the more it needs to accommodate all of these aspects.
FC: Parks have different roles, depending on where they are situated. In the case of large regional parks, these can be multi-functional. The park can accommodate sport facilities, passive and active recreation nodes as well as having an ecological aspect such as a wetland that runs through it.

What is the best type of plant material for a park?

JCP: The choice of plants used will depend on the type of soil, availability of water, climatic conditions of the area and air pollution. The best types of plants are those which are hardy, drought-resistant, fast growing and wherever possible, indigenous. Annuals should be phased out in favour of more hardy groundcovers. In areas where safety and security are problematic, only trees and grass should be planted.
JB: The best type of plant material for a park depends on its ecological setting. We strive for mostly indigenous but in cold areas this is difficult. Trees and lawn are mostly used, as shrubs become a security risk and they are also more expensive. Mass groundcovers could save on maintenance costs in the long run. Natural planting and veld is not yet acceptable, but this will catch on for conservation areas.
FC: From a security point of view, it is not advisable to create areas where criminals can hide. Maintenance and ownership are both factors that influence the use of plant material in a park. Trees create structure to a park with the vertical elements of the stems, and canopies provide shade. Low groundcovers and/or lawn areas should form the main palette.

What is the role of art in parks?

JCP: Art with special themes like “Out of Africa” can be exhibited in parks but the reason for the lack of art in parks is vandalism. Parks containing art must be secured. There is a need for specially designed art and culture parks in our towns and cities – this can help us learn and respect each other’s cultures.
JB: Art adds to the setting and ‘uniqueness of place’. It connects the site with its community and the community’s ‘feelings’, as was evident with the Regina Mundi memorial wall. It is also a unique way to involve specific skills or develop them, but this must be carefully managed.
FC: Art can be used to tell the history of a park and to educate people visiting it about different applications of art. Land-art is relatively new in South Africa but there are some good examples of how natural elements can be used to create artworks. We have used art in a park as an element that users can relate to, such as oversize abstract human figures in action.

How can parks be made more people-friendly?

JCP: The most important factor is to design parks according to the needs of the people in the area. The community cannot be excluded from park development; rather they should be completely involved to share ownership and responsibility. Parks must be secure so that people feel encouraged to visit and use them. They must be clean, attractive and maintained to high standards in order to attract people.
JB: We believe accessibility is paramount. We don’t support fining of parks but feel that cars should be kept out of them. Surveillance is another important aspect. Users must be able to see through the park, so pedestrian routes must be kept clear, open and lit. Activities should be grouped so that younger children are not far away from other activities and the adults who are supervising them.
FC: A park will be used if it is multi-functional and caters for a diversity of needs, taking different age groups into account. Security and lighting are important.

Would a ‘parkforce’ be an option in South Africa, from the point of view of security, maintenance and general cleanliness? This could involve volunteers from local communities with the purpose of reducing vandalism, cultural tensions and anti-social behaviour.

JCP: Unsafe parks are one of the most important reasons why people don’t use parks for the correct purpose. Vagrants take over parks and they are often used as dumping sites for litter. By-laws for parks have to be enforced and a parkforce is absolutely essential to look after parks and enforce these by-laws which are so often ignored. This will make parks safer places for people to use and visit. Most cities do have their own park wardens and some residential areas make use of private security companies.
JB: Where there are wardens, they are not visible enough. We must manage open spaces and someone must take responsibility for what happens in a park.
FC: Park wardens will definitely help in the upkeep and patrolling of parks.

How can communities be encouraged to become more involved in their own green spaces?

JCP: The community must be involved, right from the start, with the design of a park. If residents complain about their parks, they should be given more information on the maintenance of the park and how it is managed. Authorities should pay attention to the residents’ problems and solve them quickly, but should also encourage them to take ownership of their parks to assist the local parks management. Parks management must meet with community forums on a regular basis and visible service delivery meetings by local authorities must be attended by local parks management. Councillors and community leaders must also meet on a regular basis to solve problems and establish a general understanding.
JB: Public participation is the key. Involve the councilors and their ward committees, employ people from the immediate surrounding areas including community liaison officers and contractors’ security. Keep councillors informed and give them options in terms of their input and preferences.

Memorial sculpture in Karabo Gwalo Park, Soweto. Art connects the park with the community.
JZ De Villiers Park in Berea, Johannesburg. In places with a high security risk, only trees and lawn should be planted.

How do parks protect biological diversity and preserve ecological functions?

JB: This is key to our design approach. We try and diversify, but staying within the ecological footprint of the area. Storm water must be managed, soil constraints must be acknowledged and habitats must be protected.
FC: If a park is developed in a sensitive area, the protection of biological diversity and preservation of ecological functions should be the main goal and brief of the park. Signboards should be erected to educate people and make them aware of the specific functions and plants that need to be preserved.

Can parks help to control urban development? In South Africa, there seems to be very little regard for retaining open spaces and developers don’t seem to see the value of green lungs, which are perceived simply as opportunities for further development.

JB: Yes, this is most probably true, but we would like to see more integration between development and open space, for example schools using their wetlands for environmental education, office parks adopting neighbouring open space for informal sports, and housing developments protecting their streams from flash flooding and rehabilitating them.
FC: With strict guidelines and legislation from government and municipalities, parks can be protected and saved from sprawling developments. People should also be more informed and educated about the value of incorporating these ‘green lungs’ into their developments. Green spaces are very attractive to potential buyers of estates.

Towards a Model for an Urban Park – Urban Ecology and Sustainable Environments: A South African Perspective 

The following (abridged) information, relevant to this article, was provided by landscape architect Graham Young of Newtown Landscape Architects, Gauteng. Young is currently a senior lecturer in Landscape Architecture at the University of Pretoria, and also lectures to urban design graduates at the University of the Witwatersrand. He has undertaken extensive research on urban ecology and sustainable park environments.


This paper is about urban parks and their design. Its overall premise is that traditional approaches to the design of urban parks must change if they are to survive and have ecological and social relevance. This paper has been written with three purposes in mind: firstly, to establish the problems with current park planning and design, secondly to examine different perspectives of urban open space in order to develop a philosophical base on which park design can rest and thirdly, to illustrate how the practical application of theory to park design is relevant and useful to the urban designer and landscape architect when developing a new park or rehabilitating an existing one.

Gilloly’s Farm in Gauteng was the subject of the case study undertaken by urban design post graduate students. Mapetla, Gauteng, provides a good facility for active recreation for school children. Thokoza Dam, Gauteng.

Problems and perceptions

There are five areas of concern:

1. Isolation from the environment and design/planning values which shape our park landscapes.

Modern technology and its forms have alienated us from the natural world and the consequence is that we perceive our cities as existing separately from nature, rather than within it. Environmental concerns and natural processes do not play a major role in determining the design and form of urban areas, further reinforcing this notion.

Pollution and destruction of the natural environment has continued without awakening an adequate reaction, and industrialisation and urbanisation have transformed the human environment. Unsustainable pressures continue to be placed on the landscape as our cities expand, rapidly replacing complex natural environments with biologically sterile man-made landscapes. Sadly, the perception of nature being separate from the city has permeated through to the way we design our urban parks. For the purpose of this paper, I will be referring primarily to those parks which can be described as community or neighbourhood parks and large regional parks. However, the concerns and concepts discussed are also applicable to parks in the broader sense.

What is missing is a lack of integrated interaction in the urban eco-system, the system produced by the interactions between human cultural activities and the natural environment and an understanding of the natural processes that have contributed to the physical form of our cities. Park design has suffered largely because of misguided design attitudes which are based in horticultural science, not ecology. This attitude has little to do with the dynamics of natural processes and leads to misplaced priorities in which recreation and amenity are seen as the exclusive function of urban parks. The result is sterile landscapes which lack identity and a sense of place, and are neither ecologically nor socially enriching places in which to enjoy life. If our cities and parks are to survive we must establish a design philosophy based on the notion of sustainability; we must think ecologically (understand the relationships between air, earth, water and energy systems), socially and economically, and about man’s place within nature.

2. The common ground

Modern technology not only separates us from the natural world but largely eliminates the common ground or shared domains (plazas, streets, parks) of our communities. The identity of a community is often based on its common ground. The English commons, for instance, identified a village and its people as much as its church and castle. In South African cities, the traditional balance between public and private spaces has been rendered meaningless. The most natural of the shared domains, our parks, have been consumed by the private realm which strains towards a narcissistic autonomy in the ‘white’ suburbs of our cities, or have been completely ignored in the black townships. Our public places and parks are not given the recognition and priority they deserve. There is an urgent need for public authorities to change their attitude towards public spaces and realise the important contribution a highly developed common ground and shared facilities can bring to the community.

3. Public participation in the planning process

The reality for most inhabitants of South Africa’s townships is a costly, inconvenient, resource-inefficient and environmentally sterile place which does not facilitate a positive quality of life. In these communities, the provision and development of parks is hopelessly inadequate. Park land which is allocated is done so based on outdated town planning open space standards which have no connection to the total environment or daily life of the community. This land is often leftover space not suited to the development of a park. Consequently, these areas are underdeveloped, littered wastelands with no apparent value, where squatters have moved in and staked their claim. The nett result is that for people living in township areas to enjoy the experiences of an urban park, they must leave their communities and travel great distances to the more established parks in the cities. The parks cannot handle the overcrowding and are rapidly deteriorating. In a recent public participation survey in which over 50 public interest organisations were involved as part of the planning process for a regional park in Johannesburg, overcrowding ranked first in response to the question “What would put you off going back to an urban park?”

Exacerbating the issue of poor planning is the issue of lack of public participation in the planning process. Users have little or no say in the design and planning of urban parks. In the townships, the provision of parks is often viewed with suspicion and they are soon vandalised, the community’s perception being that they are a ‘gift’ delivered by the authorities in a patronising manner.

There is an urgent need to develop a community planning process as an effective neutralising tool to uplift the current social order and to enhance and maintain open space. Urban open spaces themselves are meaningless except in relation to their use, and to the characteristics and aspirations of the users.

4. Safety and security

Visitor safety and a sense of security is an issue which is never quite resolved in large urban parks. Safety is an issue beyond the reach of the designer alone and extends into society itself. This is easy to understand as so many social, political, environmental and economic factors can come into play. However the perception, and therefore the reality, is that large parks are not safe places in which to venture alone. During the public participation meetings discussed earlier, lack of safety ranked second to overcrowding as an aspect which would put people off going back to an urban park. Those especially vulnerable are women, children and the elderly, who fear violence, rape and muggings.

There are however, design and management factors which contribute to this perception. Firstly, most parks have facilities which are scattered throughout the park and therefore surveillance, both passive by visitors and active by maintenance staff, is difficult. Security is linked to a sense of visibility, Secondly, maintenance practices leave a lot to be desired. When a park has derelict paths, litter everywhere, dilapidated park furniture and lights that don’t work, safety declines. The design and management of our parks as safe environments should be a major objective to strive for.

5. Economics

Urban parks are expensive to build and maintain. They are notoriously under-financed, which puts the departments that manage them under tremendous pressure to get the most out of their resources and manpower.

Judging by the allocation of funding, public authorities find it difficult to understand the benefits of urban parks and are loathe to provide funds to establish park infrastructure and then to continuously pour money into them for expensive maintenance. Yet, the economy is stressed and money available for public parks will become even less accessible. Creative new ways to design, finance and run parks are essential. Parks should therefore not only be designed to be ecologically self-sustaining and productive, thereby requiring less maintenance, but a planning objective should be set which strives for economic self-sufficiency regarding the costs of managing and maintaining parks.

In search of a basis for design

Two main issues arise out of the problems and perceptions associated with parks in South Africa. Firstly, that established urban parks have not been adequately designed and new strategies must be established to rehabilitate them. Secondly, in the areas where community parks are most needed, ie the townships, they are hopelessly under-provided. There is a need to change this.

In looking for a design model on which to base the rehabilitation of existing parks and the creation of new parks, the philosophical point of departure should be that social, ecological and economic concerns are integrated through the design process. It is this holistic approach which provides a rational basis for design. This strategy is not entirely new.

A philosophy expressed by Michael Hough is inspired by urban ecology (urban natural processes) and is based on the principle that design solutions must be adapted to the site, along with a new aesthetic perspective and economic objectives. “The underlying framework for the planning and design of urban open space should be based on an integrated management philosophy. This brings ecological, functional and economic objectives to bear on the management of open space, in addition to the recreational and aesthetic objectives on which urban parks systems are currently based. Opportunities are made available for more useful urban spaces and they assume multi-functional roles, embodying the principle of a working landscape that encompasses conservation, protection, enhancement, economic benefits from resource productivity, recreation and a new aesthetic perspective. The inter-connections between land, energy and biology with an integrated resource management framework provide the essential strategy for the design of the urban landscape and give it renewed relevance and purpose.”

Towards a model for the planning and design of urban parks

A flexible design strategy for urban parks, which brings social and ecological objectives together with security, economics and productivity, is needed if the concept of sustainable environs is to be realised. Therefore, five objectives are formulated to suggest a model for urban park design and planning in South Africa.

1. Incorporate social values

The common ground, of which urban parks are a major component, must be recognised as an extremely important facet of the city. Human behavioural patterns illustrate that human beings need individual space as well as group territory in their need for identity, self-expression, orientation and social structures. Public spaces are the places within which people experience the city and engage, both formally and informally, in its collective life. While being important for all, the role of public places in the lives of the urban poor is critical. The role of social ventilation as an escape valve for stifling living conditions in poor neighbourhoods, must be re-established.

2. Develop a planning process which encourages community participation

The challenge is to understand ethnic and cultural diversity and to recognise that desirable choices of activities and needs will vary from community to community. Where the community is party to the design, site selection and maintenance of parks, they survive. People’s Parks illustrate the importance of community involvement to ensure that public spaces have meaning and relevance.

People’s Parks started as a small but quickly spreading movement in the black townships during widespread violence and unrest in 1985. They were most prominent in the township of Mamelodi, near Pretoria. With no funding, it was up to the creators to draw on their own imagination and inventiveness in making these small pockets a life-giving force. Artists, gardeners, community workers and children joined in to heal the torn environment. Mamelodi residents explained that the parks had three distinct purposes. The first was to transform the harsh environment into something beautiful and imaginative. The second was to keep the youth occupied by giving them something constructive to do, and the third was to bridge the gap between adults and youths by means of group involvement. The parks therefore represented diverse concerns prevalent in the townships, with comrades building monuments to those who died in the struggle using different ideological and cultural symbols. However, these parks were not to last and their loss was primarily the result of police personnel destroying them, especially the parks with the most overtly political symbols. People’s Parks showed the importance of community involvement, namely that by doing away with outside designers, something of meaning and relevance could be created.

3. Capitalise on the nature of the place and design according to ecological principles

This responds to the importance of a sense of place and the expression of the natural processes of the site. It promotes a sense of connection and deals with ecological health which implies biological diversity and sustainability. Sustainability in turn implies different solutions for different places. In the design and planning of our parks, we need to capitalise on the nature of the place and look to urban ecology as the basis of design.

By understanding urban natural processes and by designing according to ecological principles, an opportunity exists in our open spaces to contribute to the health of our urban environment. Through imaginative landscape design, urban parks can modify the micro-climate by cooling the air, improving air quality, reducing the impact of storm water runoff by detaining storm surges, recharging the ground water regime by impounding water in dams and improving the quality of storm water runoff by filtering it through wetlands.

If this concept is to gain widespread acceptability and lasting significance, environmental literacy is imperative, from the politician down to the youngest of children. Environmental education lies at the heart of a successful sustainable development concept. Urban parks offer an excellent opportunity for people to experience nature in the familiar surroundings of the city.

4. Strive for safe environments

If a visitor cannot feel safe in an urban park, then its value is meaningless. The objective is to provide secure environments by using innovative ways of managing and maintaining parks, and through landscape design. Safety begins with maintenance and ‘ownership’. When the public is involved in the planning of a park, it becomes ‘theirs’ as they have a vested interest and unacceptable behaviour and vandalism will not easily be tolerated.

Security begins at the perimeter with a fence to regulate when a park is open or closed. When crowding begins to impinge on the experience of enjoying the park’s environs, then the option to close the gates should be there. Active surveillance should be carried out by ‘park rangers’ and not the local police force. This is better for public relations.

Good maintenance is also crucial to park security. When a park’s facilities start to deteriorate, so does the perception of safety. Another aspect of good maintenance is the need for a clear combination of signs informing the public about the park and its recreation and education opportunities. Landscape design can contribute to or distract from security. The combination of a well-laid out park, signs, good maintenance and the presence of park rangers should send the message that the park is a safe place to visit.

5. Ensure financial feasibility and productivity

This objective deals with financial self-sufficiency and establishing ways for parks to play a productive role in the city. Parks must be planned to encourage the private sector to become involved by providing services which will generate income. Large regional parks offer an opportunity for multi-facetted use and activities where productive uses such as restaurants, health clubs, education and resource centres or golf training facilities can be accommodated.

An opportunity exists in townships to develop parks where urban agriculture can be encouraged. It is always more successful when a community initiates the process with the help of government agencies. However, it must be shown that open spaces can contribute productively and in tangible ways to the communities needs.

Practical implementation

To illustrate how this idea can be put into action, a studio project by urban design post graduate students was carried out. This project, entitled “ Chicken Farm and Race Course Squatter Settlements” was based on a case study of Gillooly’s Farm in Gauteng. The study illustrated the practical application of the theory proposed in the design model. The planning, design and development of Gillooly’s Farm illustrated a concern with productivity, environmental and social health and the efficient use of land, making the most of what the site had to offer.

The case study and design model suggested that we should move towards a sense that our public places and parks are habitats within, rather than spaces beyond, the ecosystem. This, along with the notion that our public parks should be productive, healthy and enriching places in which we can safely act out our recreational, social and cultural needs, makes our parks real.

Editor’s note

Due to space restrictions, we have not been able to publish full details of this paper, nor of the abovementioned model and case study. Readers may contact Graham Young on 082 462 1491 to obtain further information.

Photos supplied by Johannesburg City Parks, Newtown Landscape Architects and Insite Landscape Architects