GRONOVIUS, 1690-1762, established the species Gerbera Casso corr. Spreng and named it after Traugott GERBER. GRONOVIUS was an important botanist in the Netherlands and England. The naming followed after Baron A.H. von CASSINI, 1781-1832, attorney and botanist in Paris, and Curt SPRENGEL, 1766-1833, medical officer of health and director of the Botanical Gardens in Halle (Germany).
Traugott GERBER, German botanist and medical doctor collected plants on behalf of the Tsarina Anna of Russia; in particular in the eastern part of Russia, wrote a book-Flora from Moscow. He died in 1743.
REHMANN discovered a new gerbera species in the Transvaal (South Africa). JAMESON re-discovered this plant near Barberton, Eastern Transvaal. Anton REHMANN, Austrian botanist in Krakow (Poland) and Lemberg. He travelled to Russia, China as well as twice to South Africa. Robert JAMESON, merchant in Durban, Natal (South Africa).
JAMESON introduced the new Gerbera species to England. It flowered for the first time in Europe in TILLIET, Norwich (England); later on also in Kew Gardens (London) and in the Cambridge Botanical Garden.
It was BOLUS’ suggestion to name the species after JAMESON; as described by HOOKER in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. Gerbera jamesonii was mentioned for the first time in German specialist literature, “”Gartenflora””.
Harry BOLUS; 1834-1911, English botanist in Transvaal, was primarily involved with Ericaeen and orchids in South Africa. Joseph Dalton HOOKER, 1817-1911, a renowned British botanist, director of the Botanical Garden in Kew, publisher of the Botanical Magazine, undertook several trips around the world (1839 to the South Pole with Captain Ross, 1847-1851 India, 1877 North America, to name a few); he particularly studied the eastern Himalayan region.
Gerbera hybrids breed by LYNCH, Cambridge (England) received a certificate 1st Class at the Royal Horticultural Society. The horticulturists VEITSCH SONS take over the Cambridge material and start marketing the flower. From this resulted the breeding work of ADNETS. Richard Irwin LYNCH, 1850-1924, curator of the Botanical Garden Cambridge, successful horticulturist and botanist, also researched Iris and Cinerarien.
HAAGE and SCHMIDT in Erfurt (Germany), begin cultivating Gerbera jamesonii
JAENICKE, New York, starts breeding with Gerbera jamesonii. Gerbera are cultivated on the French Riviera in La Mortola.
HUGH, LOW and Co., Enfield (England), cultivate Gerbera in large quantities, mostly in pots.
Horticultural company VILMORIN, Paris distributes gerbera seeds. HENKEL; Darmstadt (Germany) show Gerbera jamesonii in Düsseldorf. ADNET, Antibes (France) gives Gerbera jamesonii to horticultural companies SINAI in and BšR and FELDMANN both in Frankfurt. The first drawings of Gerbera jamesonii appear in German a specialist magazine (Gartenflora).
SPRENGER, Vomera (Italy) records the following flowering plants (defined as species): Gerbera: G. transvalensis,G. sanguinea, G. illustris, G. jolanda, G. acanthifolia, G.superba, G. vomerensis, G. lmensis.
Gerbera jamesonii are receiving strong recognition in specialist circles. ADNET displays gerbera at the international garden exhibitions in Berlin as well as London and Paris. Gerberas are described in the French and German specialist press; also by VILMORIN, ADNET in other publications, such as Revue Horticole and in M”llers Deutscher Gärtnerzeitung.
The rose and carnation horticulture of BILLARD and GEHRICKE in Werbig also cultivate Gerbera.
I.S. SCHMIDT, Erfurt, attempt to sprout rhizomes; this culture was however not pursued.
Most of the Gerbera cultures in Europe died.
DIEM in Bordighera, previously a senior gardener with ADNET, re-commences breeding Gerbera jamesonii.
SCHULZ nursery in Trebbin near Berlin, takes on Gerbera cultivation; this has been maintained for over 30 yearsup until the present (GPG “”Blumenstadt Trebbin””).
HAHN does a lot for Gerbera cultivation through the publication “”Gartenwelt””. STEINAU, Juan leg Pins (France) breeds Gerbera, in particular the filled variety.
GRYMY, Hamburg-Grossborstel, cultivates Gerbera in pots.
ENGELMANN, Saffron-Walden (England) starts with the cultivation of Gerbera.
DE RIDDER, Aalsmeer (Netherlands), cultivates Gerbera.
WESCOTT, Orlando, Florida (USA), cultivates Gerbera outdoors.
Gerbera imported from Italy are traded at 3,504,00 DM wholesale.
Various German nurseries commence test breeding with Gerbera, but almost without exception stop due to the culture’s uncertainty Gerbera wilting.
TOMPKINS and TUCKER, USA, discover Phytophthora cryptogaea as being the cause for the Gerbera wilting.
BOSIAN and MANN; Giesenheim (Germany) develop a successful Gerbera propagation through splitting.
Japanese breeders introduce name types of Gerbera. At the beginning of the Second World War, Gerbera were cultivated in Belgium at SANDER, Bruges; in Germany at HECK in Lippstadt, HORNING in Steinheim, MILNZ in Waiblingen, SCHULZ in Trebbin and SCHWARZ in Berlin; in England at Saffron-Walden; in Italy at DIEM in Bordighera and in Switzerland at BAUM in Vevey.
Decline of gerbera cultures in Europe.
After many years of grafting between American duplex types and Gerberas of Indian plants of the KORKARDENTYPE, EPPLE in Columbia, developed his own Gerbera species. HERSEY in California starts getting involved in Gerbera breeding.
The Dutch nursery ALKEMADE and Son in Nordwyk and VAN STAVEREN in Aalsmeer took up the breeding of Gerbera jamesonii.
European countries, in particular West Germany and Holland are starting to breed Gerberas again, or starting with the breeding.
PENNINGSFELD, Weihenstephan, commences work with Gerbera jamesonii, in particular with regard to nutrition and substrates.
The Institute for Horticulture in Dresden-Pillnitz of the German Academy of Agriculture in Berlin commences work on Gerbera jamesonii. For the first time EPPLE makes a statement in the “”Gartenwelt”” regarding breeding goals and the evaluation of Gerbera.
Horticulture has expanded especially in Western Germany, in particular in the area around Straelen. The nursery GUDE in Berlin, started to cultivate Gerbera. In Switzerland, BRUMMER Frˆres in La Tour-de-Peilz is also cultivating Gerbera. In Denmark, the nursery FRANDSEN cultivates Gerberas of Dutch and American origin. ZWAART, experimental laboratory in Aalsmeer, documents the connection between the pH value and the appearance of the root rotting in the Gerbera plant. Gerbera experimentation is done at the Institute for Horticulture at the University Gizeh (Cairo, Egypt).
STINSON, experimental laboratory Storos in Connecticut in the USA conducts tests between the acidity levels and flower yield of Gerbera.
In some nurseries (HOMING in Steinheim; SINAI in Frankfurt; VAN STAVEREN, Aalsmeer) Gerberas are planted as hydro-cultures. In the course of specialisation there is a call for a separation of breeding and cultivation. In Germany 10000m2 of Gerbera are cultivated under glass.
Phytophthora cryptogaea is confirmed by PAG as a significant cause of Gerbera wilting in Central Europe.
PAG and MAATSCH prove in addition to Phytophthora cryptogaea, Verticillium alboatrum also causes a Gerbera wilting sickness.
SCHMELZER discovers the TSNV (Tobacco Straighted Necrosis Virus) on the Gerbera. For the first time, PENNINGSFELD and FORCHTHAMMER successfully develop an agent to keep Gerbera flowers fresh.
LEFRING successfully breeds a large flower “”Schwarzherz”” (black heart) Gerbera.
MAURER carries out the first genetic-breeding research on Gerbera.
BRUYN discovers the damage done to the Gerbera flower by fluoride.
LEFERING develops a new intensive propagation method for Gerbera.
STOFFERT and ROHLFING publish research to procedures regarding harvesting and marketing of Gerbera. Russia starts with Gerbera production on alarge scale.
www.gerbera.org goes live.
Source: GERBERA-Pillnitzer Autorenkollektiv
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